Accounts of Species of Hypothetical Occurrence or Origin

The CBRC has generally reviewed one to several records of each species treated in this section, but none has been accepted. Species are included in this section because (1) identification was not established to a sufficient degree (e.g., Solander’s Petrel); (2) identification was well-established but natural occurrence was considered unlikely (e.g., Jackass Penguin) or the bird possibly or definitely occurred somewhere other than California (Spectacled Eider and Pied Avocet); or (3) evidence was lacking that a non-native population was viable (e.g., Gray Partridge). The distinction between the first and second categories serves to underscore that the California Bird Records Committee always considers first the issue of identification; only when the identification has been established (and the bird is accepted as having occurred in California) is the issue of natural occurrence considered. The Gray Petrel and Chilean Skua are treated in this section because they were accepted by Grinnell and Miller (1944), and the Ringed Turtle-Dove is discussed because it was accepted by McCaskie et al. (1970).

The California Bird List (Table C, page 12) includes ten non-native bird species well-established in California. Table D on page 29 lists 15 naturalized species known to nest regularly in California that have not yet been reviewed by the CBRC or accepted as being well-established in the state. Many more bird species have been recorded in the wild in California—some actually nesting—but are traditionally not regarded as genuine vagrants or having established viable populations; thus the CBRC has not specifically reviewed records of them: Red-breasted Goose (Branta ruficollis; McCaskie et al. 1970, Wilbur and Yocom 1971, AOU 1998, Patten et al. 2003); Black Swan (Cygnus atratus); Ringed Teal (Calonetta leucophrys); White-cheeked Pintail (Anas bahamensis); Rosy-billed Pochard (Netta peposaca); Red-legged Partridge (Alectoris rufa); Greater (Phoenicopterus ruber), Chilean (P. chilensis), and Lesser (Phoeniconaias minor) Flamingos; Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus); Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus); various macaws (Ara spp.); White-fronted (Amazona albifrons), Red-lored (A. autumnalis), and Blue-fronted (A. aestiva) Parrots; Peach-faced Lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis); Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus); Great Kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus; Grinnell and Miller 1944, Harvey 1958, McCaskie et al. 1970, Brush and Fitzpatrick 2002); Black-throated Magpie-Jay (Calocitta colliei; Haas 2004, Unitt 2004); Green Jay (Cyanocorax yncas; Unitt 2004); House Crow (Corvus splendens); Australian Magpie (Gymnorhina tibicen); various laughingthrushes (Garrulax spp.); Oriental White-eye (Zosterops palpebrosus; Unitt 2004); Crested Myna (Acridotheres cristatellus); White-headed (Lonchura maja), Tricolored (L. malacca), and Chestnut (L. atricapilla) Mannikins; Pin-tailed Whydah (Vidua macroura); Orange-breasted Bunting (Passerina leclancherii; NAB 59:656); African Fire-Finch (Lagonosticta rubricata; AOU 1998:698, Roberson 2002:482); and several additional members of the family Estrildidae. Grinnell and Miller (1944), Roberson (2002), Unitt (2004), and Harris (2006) treated many additional species of this sort, and Kimball L. Garrett of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County maintains a database of observations of all California exotics, especially in the Los Angeles area.

Additional species reported in the literature and unreviewed by the CBRC include: Kermadec Petrel (Pterodroma neglecta), reported at sea far off southern California but apparently with few details (AB 43:536); Eastern Screech-Owl (Megascops asio), found at a train station in Industry, Los Angeles County, and assumed to have been transported unnaturally (NAB 58:146); Whiskered Screech-Owl (M. trichopsis), reported on Christmas Bird Counts in Pasadena, Los Angeles County (AFN 13:251) and coastal Orange County (AB 41:1280); Mexican Chickadee (Poecile sclateri), reported on the Idyllwild, Riverside County, Christmas Bird Count (AB 25:489); and Tufted Titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor), reported on Christmas Bird Counts at Marysville, Yuba County (AFN 5:176, cf. Manolis 2006) and Whitmore, Shasta County (AB 41:1290). The CBRC would review these records if any available supporting documentation were to be submitted to the secretary, but Committee members have made little or no effort to track down such details. Most, but not all, of these species are considered very unlikely to reach California unaided.